Analysts at JPMorgan recommended selling or "underweight" emerging market local currency sovereign debt because of the global impact of the Ukraine-Russia crisis.
JPMorgan estimated that fixed-income assets in emerging markets have lost 6-9 percent of their value since Russia invaded Ukraine a month ago, with nervousness about the war and its impact on global energy and food prices adding to existing pressures.
Some leading emerging market central banks are signaling that interest rates now need to rise faster than previously expected, which fuels fears of "stagflation". Stagflation means when high inflation and higher interest rates undermine economic growth.
With both the U.S. Federal Reserve and emerging market central banks raising interest rates, JPMorgan also said it made sense to "underweight" emerging market assets by taking advantage of the recent pullback in local currency bond yields relative to TREASURIES.
JPMorgan said major metals exporters such as South Africa, Chile, and Peru could still do well, but warned that emerging market fixed income assets now faced a more "stagflationary" trajectory.
The markets and prices of many commodities, metals, chemicals like the Graphite Lubricant still face uncertainty.
There are many types of lubricants available, from motor oils to special lubricants such as lithium-based lubricants. Some modern materials can be impregnated with lubricants, thus eliminating the need to lubricate moving parts. Graphite lubricants are unusual in that they can be used both as dry lubricants and as liquid bases.
Uses of lubricants
Lubricants reduce the friction between two surfaces. When the friction between two surfaces is too great, they may not be able to move. By adding lubricants, mechanical systems are less susceptible to friction-related problems. One of these problems is heat. Components that rub against each other without a lubricant will generate more heat than components that reduce friction through lubrication.
What is graphite?
Graphite is a form of carbon. Graphite is silvery black in colour with a dull metallic sheen. Graphite is a very soft mineral. On the Mohs hardness scale, it lies between 1 and 2. Due to this softness and its tendency to flake, it is ideally suited for use as a dry lubricant.
Graphite as a dry lubricant requires contact with the atmosphere for optimum performance. The water vapour in the air reduces the molecular bonding of graphite, allowing it to slide and thus reduce friction. The disadvantage of graphite as a lubricant is that it does not bind well to the surface it is lubricating. It comes off easily and needs to be applied frequently.
There are different types of liquid graphite lubricants. One type is graphite suspended in a liquid matrix which evaporates when the liquid is applied to the surface. When the liquid evaporates, a thin layer of pure graphite is left to lubricate the surface. Graphite grease is a graphite lubricant designed to adhere to a surface, for example when used on exposed bearings. The grease will help to keep the graphite in place and allow it to work.
Advantages of graphite
Graphite has advantages in situations where wet lubricants may not be practical, for example where electricity may be at risk. Another situation is when lubricating porous substances such as wood. Wood can be easily soiled by oil or other common lubricants. Compared to some other lubricants, graphite can dissipate more heat. For example, graphite greases can often handle more heat than natural bearing greases.
High-quality Conductive graphite lubricant powder supplier
Luoyang Moon & Star New Energy Technology Co., LTD, founded on October 17, 2008, is a high-tech enterprise committed to developing, producing, processing, selling, and technical services of lithium-ion battery anode materials. After more than 10 years of development, the company has gradually developed into a diversified product structure with natural graphite, artificial graphite, composite graphite, intermediate phase, and other negative materials (silicon-carbon materials, etc.). The products are widely used in high-end lithium-ion digital power and energy storage batteries.
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